Regional pasture growth rates

Following are a series of pasture growth rate (kg/ha/day) tables and graphs for regions across Australia.  This data set was compiled for the Meat and Livestock Australia Feed Demand Calculator using validated curves from research sites, data presented in GrassGro, and with input from experienced research and extension professionals.  The growth rate values should be used only as a guide only. Ways to measure and calculate your own pasture growth is provided here.

New South Wales

North West Slopes (Tamworth)

Pasture growth rates - North West Slopes NSW
Figure 1. Pasture growth rates – North West Slopes NSW

Table 1. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various pasture species in North West Slopes NSW

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Phalaris, clover – Standard year, Fertiliser 7 10 15 17 15 12 12 15 30 40 35 10
Lucerne – Standard year, Fertiliser 50 40 37 20 18 10 10 15 35 45 55 75
Premeir diget grass – Standard year, Fertiliser 68 72 61 20 17 0 0 10 20 35 62 72
Rhodes grass – Standard year, Fertiliser 40 55 50 22 18 0 0 5 15 20 32 35
Swan Forest bluegrass – Standard year, Fertiliser 40 38 40 22 20 0 0 5 8 18 10 20
Forage sorghum – Standard year, Fertiliser 100 95 68 21 0 0 0 0 0 7 42 140
Forage oats – Standard year, Fertiliser 0 0 18 38 57 68 67 52 48 35 5 0
Danthonia, clover – Standard year, Fertiliser 18 16 12 8 7 5 7 10 22 25 20 15
Summer grass dominant, Fertiliser 32 33 17 10 5 3 2 2 3 5 20 30
Native perennials – Standard year, No fertiliser 22 23 18 7 3 0 0 3 7 7 10 20

North West Slopes (Warialda)

 Table 2. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for sown grass in North West Slopes NSW (Warialda)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Sown grass – Standard year 27 23 20 8 2 0 0 0 5 18 29 30
Sown grass – Poor year 9 9 13 3 1 0 0 0 4 14 19 14
Sown grass – Good year 44 41 36 14 2 0 0 1 6 19 34 41
Table 3. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for native grass in North West Slopes NSW (Warialda)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Native grass – Standard year 24 21 18 7 2 0 0 0 4 15 24 27
Native grass – Poor year 9 8 12 3 1 0 0 0 3 12 16 13
Native grass – Good year 40 38 32 12 2 0 0 1 5 16 28 37
Table 4. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for forage sorghum in North West Slopes NSW (Warialda)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Forage sorghum – Standard year 79 49 33 13 1 0 0 0 0 0 13 65
Forage sorghum – Poor year 42 32 20 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 42
Forage sorghum – Good year 94 52 48 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 94
Table 5. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for Lablab in North West Slopes NSW (Warialda) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lablab – Standard year 50 40 32 13 1 0 0 0 0 0 14 47
Lablab – Poor year 24 18 17 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 22
Lablab – Good year 72 60 57 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 64
Table 6. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in North West Slopes NSW (Warialda)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Standard year 19 19 20 19 15 14 16 22 26 22 21 22
Lucerne – Poor year 7 10 11 9 6 12 7 10 11 6 7 8
Lucerne – Good year 30 25 24 30 22 21 22 34 38 41 46 45
Table 7. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for oats in North West Slopes NSW (Warialda)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Oats – Standard year 0 0 0 3 35 25 33 39 36 23 16 0
Oats – Poor year 0 0 0 2 22 29 27 26 20 8 1 0
Oats – Good year 0 0 0 2 30 22 43 43 42 35 39 0

Northern Tablelands

Table 8. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for tall fescue, clover in Northern Tablelands, NSW

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Tall fescue, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 58 57 51 28 12 9 9 11 23 38 51 59
Tall fescue, clover – Good year, Fertilised 75 74 89 49 21 12 12 14 30 49 66 77
Tall fescue, clover – Poor year, Fertiliser 35 34 20 11 5 5 5 7 14 23 31 35
Table 9. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for phalaris, clover in Northern Tablelands, NSW
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Phalaris, clover – Standard year, Fertiliser 26 30 36 34 13 9 9 11 22 37 49 51
Phalaris, clover – Good year, Fertiliser 34 39 63 60 23 12 12 14 29 48 64 66
Phalaris, clover – Poor year, Fertiliser 16 18 14 14 5 5 5 7 13 22 29 31
Table 10. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for redgrass in Northern Tablelands, NSW
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Redgrass – Standard year, No fertiliser 33 33 29 9 2 1 1 1 7 27 33 34
Redgrass – Good year, No fertiliser 43 43 51 16 4 1 1 1 9 35 43 44
Redgrass – Poor year, No fertiliser 20 20 12 4 1 1 1 1 4 16 20 20
Table 11. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for Microlaena, clover in Northern Tablelands, NSW
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Microlaena, clover – Standard year, Fertiliser 39 36 29 18 8 3 3 7 19 33 40 44
Microlaena, clover – Good year, Fertiliser 51 47 51 32 14 4 4 9 25 43 52 57
Microlaena, clover – Poor year, Fertiliser 23 22 12 7 3 2 2 4 11 20 24 26
Table 12. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass, clover in Northern Tablelands, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Standard year, Fertiliser 20 28 38 34 13 9 9 11 23 43 47 35
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Good year, Fertiliser 26 36 67 60 23 12 12 14 30 56 61 46
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Poor year, Fertiliser 12 17 15 14 5 5 5 7 14 26 28 21

Central Tablelands

Pasture growth rates - Central Tablelands NSW
Figure 2. Pasture growth rates – Central Tablelands NSW

 Table 13. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for sown perennial ryegrass, clover in Central Tablelands, NSW

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Sown perennial grass, clover – Standard year, Fertlised 15 12 16 20 20 10 6 10 27 61 69 45
Sown perennial grass, clover – Good year, Fertilised 30 24 26 33 33 14 8 14 41 92 104 90
Sown perennial grass, clover – Poor year, Fertilised 5 4 6 8 8 4 2 4 16 37 41 16
Table 14. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for chicory, clover in Central Tablelands, NSW
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Chicory, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 22 25 9 5 3 2 2 8 42 73 77 44
Table 15. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for Microlaena, clover in Central Tablelands, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Microlaena, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 19 15 19 22 19 7 5 8 18 52 62 51
Microlaena, clover – Good year, Fertilised 38 30 31 36 31 10 7 11 27 78 93 102
Microlaena, clover – Poor year, Fertilised 6 5 8 9 8 3 2 3 11 31 37 16
Microlaena – Standard year, No fertiliser 15 14 19 21 15 3 3 3 9 34 51 32
Microlaena – Good year, No fertiliser 30 28 31 35 25 4 4 4 14 51 77 64
Microlaena – Poor year, No fertiliser 5 4 8 8 6 1 1 1 5 20 31 16
Table 16. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for summer grass, clover in Central Tablelands, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Summer grass, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 24 10 15 16 12 7 4 8 28 38 25 23
Summer grass, clover – Good year, Fertilised 48 20 25 26 20 10 6 11 42 57 38 46
Summer grass, clover – Poor year, Fertilised 7 3 6 6 5 3 2 3 17 23 15 16
Summer grass – Standard year, No fertiliser 24 10 14 14 2 2 2 2 2 4 16 23
Summer grass – Good year, No fertiliser 48 20 23 23 3 3 3 3 3 6 24 46
Summer grass – Poor year, No fertiliser 7 3 6 6 1 1 1 1 1 2 10 16
Table 17. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annual grass, clover in Central Tablelands, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 0 0 2 6 12 11 9 17 45 74 10 0
Annual grass, clover – Good year, Fertilised 0 0 3 10 20 15 13 24 68 111 15 0
Annual grass, clover – Poor year, Fertilised 0 0 1 2 5 4 4 7 27 44 6 16

Central West Slopes

Table 18. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for temperate grass, clover in Central West Slopes, NSW

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Temperate grass, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 7 5 8 10 14 16 10 20 30 50 41 17
Temperate grass, clover – Good year, Fertilised 14 10 16 20 28 27 17 34 51 85 70 34
Temperate grass, clover – Poor year, Fertilised 1 2 3 4 6 6 4 4 6 10 8 3
Table 19. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for sub clover in Central West Slopes, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Sub clover – Standard year, Fertilised 0 0 0 2 7 10 10 15 30 27 10 0
Sub clover – Good year, Fertilised 0 0 0 4 14 17 17 26 51 46 17 0
Sub clover – Poor year, Fertilised 0 0 0 1 3 4 4 5 10 9 5 0
Table 20. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for summer grass in Central West Slopes, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Summer grass – Standard year, Not fertilised 20 24 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 11 25
Summer grass – Good year, Not fertilised 40 48 18 4 4 3 3 3 3 5 19 50
Summer grass – Poor year, Not fertilised 4 10 4 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 5
Table 21. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne, clover in Central West Slopes, NSW
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne, clover pasture – Standard year, Fertilised 25 25 28 31 26 17 10 10 22 45 43 26
Lucerne, clover pasture- Good year, Fertilised 50 50 56 62 52 29 17 17 37 77 73 52
Lucerne, clover pasture – Poor year, Fertilised 5 10 11 12 10 7 4 2 4 9 9 5
Lucerne – Standard year, Fertilised 25 25 28 31 24 13 9 9 18 45 43 26
Lucerne – Good year, Fertilised 50 50 56 62 48 22 15 15 31 77 73 52
Lucerne – Poor year, Fertilised 5 10 11 12 10 5 4 2 4 9 9 5
Table 22. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annual grass, clover in Central West Slopes, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 5 3 1 6 16 18 12 12 23 42 10 5
Annual grass, clover – Good year, Fertilised 10 6 2 12 32 31 20 20 39 71 17 10
Annual grass, clover – Poor year, Fertilised 1 1 0 2 6 7 5 2 5 8 2 1
Table 23. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for tropical grass in Central West Slopes, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Tropical grass – Standard year, Fertilised 35 34 24 8 3 2 2 2 2 8 24 35
Tropical grass – Good year, Fertilised 70 68 48 16 6 3 3 3 3 14 41 70
Tropical grass – Poor year, Fertilised 7 14 10 3 1 1 1 0 0 2 5 7

South West Slopes

Pasture growth curves - South West Slopes NSW
Figure 3. Pasture growth curves – South West Slopes NSW

 Table 24. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for phalaris, clover in South West Slopes, NSW

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Phalaris, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 5 7 16 25 24 14 16 26 47 64 43 12
Phalaris, clover – Good year, Fertilised 15 21 21 33 31 25 29 47 61 83 56 36
Phalaris,clover – Poor year, Fertilised 2 2 6 10 10 11 13 21 19 26 17 4
Table 25. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for cocksfoot, clover in South West Slopes, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cocksfoot, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 9 8 16 25 24 14 16 26 47 64 43 15
Cocksfoot, clover – Good year, Fertilised 27 24 21 33 31 25 29 47 61 83 56 45
Cocksfoot, clover – Poor year, Fertilised 3 2 6 10 10 11 13 21 19 26 17 5
Table 26. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne, clover in South West Slopes, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 12 10 17 28 26 14 11 25 49 69 54 21
Lucerne, clover – Good year, Fertilised 36 30 22 36 34 25 20 45 64 90 70 63
Lucerne, clover – Poor year, Fertilised 4 3 7 11 10 11 9 20 20 28 22 6
Table 27. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annual grass, clover in South West Slopes, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass, clover – Standard year, Fertilised 3 4 10 23 24 20 10 25 45 64 35 7
Annual grass, clover – Good year, Fertilised 9 12 13 30 31 36 18 45 59 83 46 21
Annual grass, clover – Poor year, Fertilised 1 1 4 9 10 16 8 20 18 26 14 2
Table 28. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for native grass in South West Slopes, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Native grass – Standard year, Not fertilised 8 6 5 11 10 4 3 3 7 15 23 13
Native grass – Good year, Not fertilised 20 15 5 12 11 6 4 4 8 16 25 32
Native grass – Poor year, Not fertilised 4 3 3 7 6 5 4 4 5 10 15 6
Native grass – Standard year, Fertilised 11 9 11 15 14 6 5 7 17 35 26 14
Native grass – Good year, Fertilised 33 27 14 20 18 11 9 13 22 46 34 42
Native grass  – Poor year, Fertilised 3 3 4 6 6 5 4 6 7 14 10 4

North Coast

Table 29. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for naturalised carpet grass in North Coast, NSW

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Naturalised carpet grass, No fertiliser – Standard year 25 30 25 10 3 0 0 0 3 5 9 15
Naturalised carpet grass, No fertiliser – Good year 40 72 60 24 9 0 0 0 5 9 15 24
Naturalised carpet grass, No fertiliser – Poor year 10 12 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 6
Naturalised carpet grass, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 30 35 30 15 8 6 5 6 10 15 20 25
Naturalised carpet grass, clover, Fertiliser- Good year 48 84 72 36 24 18 15 18 17 26 34 40
Naturalised carpet grass, clover, Fertiliser – Poor year 12 14 3 2 1 2 2 2 4 6 8 10
Table 30. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for kikuyu in North Coast, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Kikuyu – Standard year 34 54 50 30 16 10 3 2 8 18 25 30
Kikuyu – Good year 54 130 120 72 48 30 9 6 14 31 43 48
Kikuyu – Poor year 14 22 5 3 2 3 1 1 3 7 10 12
Table 31. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for kikuyu with nitrogen fertiliser in North Coast, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Kikuyu, N fertiliser – Standard year 80 128 146 100 45 15 3 4 14 30 40 60
Kikuyu, N fertiliser – Good year 80 128 146 100 45 27 5 7 17 36 48 68
Kikuyu, N fertiliser – Poor year 59 94 27 18 8 8 2 2 10 22 29 44
Table 32. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for setaria, rhodes grass,clover in North Coast, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Setaria, rhodes grass, clover – Standard year 30 55 45 25 6 2 2 4 8 20 28 30
Setaria, rhodes grass, clover – Good year 48 132 108 60 18 6 6 12 14 34 48 48
Setaria, rhodes grass, clover – Poor year 12 22 5 3 1 1 1 1 3 8 11 12
Table 33. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annual ryegrass with nitrogen fertiliser in North Coast, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual ryegrass, N fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 30 40 30 30 30 28 10 8 5
Annual ryegrass, N fertiliser – Good year 0 0 0 47 63 53 53 53 34 12 10 6
Annual ryegrass, N fertiliser – Poor year 0 0 0 6 7 17 17 17 21 7 6 4

Mid North Coast and Lower Hunter

Table 34. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for naturalised carpet grass in Mid North Coast and Lower Hunter, NSW

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Naturalised carpet grass- Standard year, No fertiliser 17 25 23 9 2 0 0 0 2 4 8 9
Naturalised carpet grass – Good year, No fertiliser 37 55 39 15 3 0 0 0 6 12 23 20
Naturalised carpet grass – Poor year, No fertiliser 9 14 5 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 5
Naturalised carpet grass, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 20 29 27 12 4 3 3 3 6 10 12 12
Naturalised carpet grass, clover, Fertiliser – Good year 44 64 46 20 7 6 6 6 17 29 35 26
Naturalised carpet grass, clover, Fertiliser – Poor year 11 16 5 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 6
Table 35. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for kikuyu in Mid North Coast and Lower Hunter, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Kikuyu – Standard year 27 45 50 33 16 6 2 3 11 10 10 12
Kikuyu – Good year 59 99 85 56 27 11 4 6 32 29 29 26
Kikuyu – Poor year 15 24 10 7 3 2 1 1 3 3 3 6
Table 36. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for paspalum in Mid North Coast and Lower Hunter, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Paspalum – Standard year 23 33 32 16 5 5 5 5 10 15 15 15
Paspalum dominant – Good year 51 73 54 27 9 9 9 9 29 44 44 33
Paspalum – Poor year 12 18 6 3 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 8
Table 37. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for setaria in Mid North Coast and Lower Hunter, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Setaria – Standard year 29 38 44 23 8 5 5 5 10 11 11 13
Setaria – Good year 64 84 75 39 14 9 9 9 29 32 32 29
Setaria – Poor year 16 21 9 5 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 7
Table 38. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annual ryegrass with nitrogen fertiliser in Mid North Coast and Lower Hunter, NSW 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual ryegrass, N fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 5 20 36 35 40 40 25 0 0
Annual Ryegrass, N fertiliser – Good year 0 0 0 9 34 67 65 74 116 73 0 0
Annual ryegrass, N fertiliser – Poor year 0 0 0 1 4 12 12 13 12 8 0 0

Victoria

South West Lower (Hamilton)

Pasture growth curves - South West Victoria (Hamilton)
Figure 4. Pasture growth curves – South West Victoria (Hamilton)

Average, minimum and maximum pasture growth curves are also available for semi-winter active lucerne (SARDI Seven), chicory (Puna), summer active tall fescue (Quantum) and various ryegrass species (Avalon, Banquet and Fitzroy) at Hamilton Proof Site.

Table 39. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annual grass, low clover with fertliser in South West Victoria (Hamilton)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass, low clover, Fertiliser – Poor year 2 0 0 5 10 12 15 18 40 50 20 0
Annual grass, low clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 7 14 20 20 20 58 81 50 10
Annual grass,  low clover, Fertiliser – Good year 0 0 2 10 20 25 25 30 60 80 50 10
Table 40. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass, phalaris, clover and annuals with fertiliser in South West Victoria (Hamilton) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Per. ryegrass, phalaris, clover, annuals, Fert – Poor year 2 0 0 5 8 15 17 22 50 70 33 5
Per. ryegrass, phalaris, clover, annuals, Fert. – Stnd year 5 5 5 7 14 19 22 37 69 100 78 14
Per. ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Good year 10 5 10 20 25 30 32 40 70 120 90 30
Sum active perennial rye, clover, Fert – Stnd year 10 10 5 13 20 30 25 40 50 75 60 25
Table 41. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for fescue summer active clover with fertiliser in South West Victoria (Hamilton) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Fescue summer active, clover, Fert – Stnd year 15 10 5 20 30 40 40 40 60 90 60 15
Table 42. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for chicory, clover and annuals with fertiliser in South West Victoria (Hamilton) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Chicory, clover, annuals, Fertiliser – Stnd year 9 8 17 15 22 29 22 46 60 50 30 20
Table 43. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for winter active lucerne and annuals with fertiliser in South West Victoria (Hamilton) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne winter active, annuals, Fert – Poor year 9 9 8 7 13 23 26 38 45 53 20 10
Lucerne winter active, annuals, Fert – Stnd year 17 18 15 14 25 30 35 50 60 70 40 20
Lucerne winter active, annuals, Fert – Good year 26 27 23 21 38 38 44 63 75 88 60 30

South West Lower (Lismore)

Table 44. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass, phalaris and clover with fertiliser in South West Lower, Victoria (Lismore)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Poor year 0 0 0 4 11 14 14 28 42 56 42 4
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Stnd year 0 0 0 5 15 20 20 40 60 80 60 5
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Good year 5 5 10 20 20 25 30 50 70 100 70 50
Table 45. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for low clover, onion grass and annuals with fertiliser in South West Lower, Victoria (Lismore) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Poor Year 0 0 0 3 5 10 12 18 39 49 32 0
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert, Stnd year 0 0 0 5 15 20 20 25 55 70 45 0
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Good Year 0 0 0 10 20 25 25 30 60 75 55 10

South West Upper (Balmoral)

Table 46. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass, phalaris and clover with fertiliser in South West Upper, Victoria (Balmoral)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Poor year 0 0 0 4 8 11 13 25 39 49 42 4
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Stnd year 0 0 0 6 12 16 18 35 55 70 60 5
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Good year 0 0 5 20 20 25 25 40 65 100 70 30
Table 47. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals, onion grass, low clover with fertiliser in South West Upper, Victoria (Balmoral) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Poor Year 0 0 0 6 11 14 11 21 28 35 32 1
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Stnd year 0 0 0 8 15 20 15 30 40 50 45 2
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Good Year 0 0 5 15 20 20 20 35 45 70 50 10
Table 48. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in South West Upper, Victoria (Balmoral) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Standard year 10 10 9 16 16 13 12 17 32 41 33 20
Lucerne – Poor year 10 6 5 9 14 12 10 14 31 38 21 5
Lucerne – Good year 10 3 11 20 19 16 14 21 32 52 74 27

South West Upper (Edenhope)

Table 49. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass, phalaris and clover with fertiliser in South West Upper, Victoria (Edenhope)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Poor year 0 0 0 1 4 14 14 21 35 56 35 0
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Stnd year 0 0 0 1 6 20 20 30 50 80 50 0
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Good year 0 0 0 12 20 25 25 40 70 100 70 30
Table 50. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals, onion grass and low clover with fertiliser in South West Upper, Victoria (Edenhope) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Poor Year 0 0 0 0 4 14 14 14 21 42 32 0
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Stnd year 0 0 0 0 5 20 20 20 30 60 45 0
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Good Year 0 0 0 5 20 25 25 30 50 80 50 20

South West Upper (Ballarat)

Table 51. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in South West Upper, Victoria (Ballarat)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Perennial grass, clover pasture, Fert – Stnd year 0 0 15 20 30 20 20 35 50 90 80 70
Bent grass, No fertiliser – Standard year 10 10 5 5 5 5 5 20 40 60 40 30

South West Upper (Ararat)

Table 52. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass, phalaris and clover with fertiliser in South West Upper, Victoria (Ararat)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Poor year 0 0 0 4 7 7 11 21 35 56 14 0
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Stnd year 0 0 0 5 10 10 15 30 50 80 20 0
Per ryegrass, phalaris, clover, Fert – Good year 0 0 5 15 20 30 40 50 70 100 50 10
Table 53. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals, onion grass and low clover with fertiliser in South West Upper, Victoria (Ararat) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Poor Year 0 0 0 1 7 7 11 18 25 32 14 0
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Stnd year 0 0 0 2 10 10 15 25 35 45 20 0
Annuals, onion grass, low clover, Fert – Good Year 0 0 5 10 20 20 30 40 50 60 30 5
Table 54. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for Danthonia, annuals and low clover with no fertiliser in South West Upper, Victoria (Ararat) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Danthonia, annuals, low clover, no fert – Stnd year 5 3 3 4 5 7 7 10 17 30 17 8

South West Upper (Maryborough)

Table 55. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne and annuals with fertiliser in South West Upper, Victoria (Maryborough)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne, annual grasses, Fert – Standard year 5 5 2 5 10 12 15 30 55 70 30 5
Table 56. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for phalaris and clover in South West Upper, Victoria (Maryborough) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Phalaris, clover – Poor year 0 0 0 5 10 10 10 16 29 40 15 0
Phalaris, clover – Standard year 0 0 5 10 20 19 15 20 27 50 20 10
Phalaris, clover – Good year 0 5 10 20 30 20 25 15 29 70 40 20
Table 57. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals in South West Upper, Victoria (Maryborough)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass – Standard year 0 0 0 5 10 20 25 30 60 40 20 0
Annual grass – Poor year 0 0 0 0 10 13 10 20 40 30 0 0
Annual grass – Good year 0 0 0 10 15 30 40 40 80 60 40 10

North West Victoria (Boort)

Table 58. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in North West Victoria (Boort)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne, annuals, weeds, Fertiliser – Stnd year 0 0 0 5 10 15 15 30 45 20 10 0
Phalaris, annuals, clover, weeds, Fert – Stnd year 0 2 2 5 10 15 17 32 60 35 15 0

North East Vic (Seymour)

Pasture growth curves - Victoria (Seymour)
Figure 5. Pasture growth curves – North East Victoria (Seymour)

 Table 59. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for phalaris and clover with fertiliser in North East Victoria (Seymour)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Phalaris, clover, Fertilised – Standard year 6 5 5 33 17 10 15 20 40 65 25 7
Phalaris, clover, Fertilised – Good year 10 10 15 40 30 14 20 30 50 90 50 15
Phalaris, clover, Fertilised – Poor year 0 0 0 10 10 7 7 10 15 50 10 0
 Table 60. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for phalaris and clover with high fertility in North East Victoria (Seymour)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Phalaris, clover, High fertility – Standard year 10 6 8 35 25 20 20 25 50 85 30 7
Phalaris, clover, High fertlity – Good year 15 20 20 50 30 30 30 50 70 100 50 15
Phalaris, clover, High fertility – Poor year 0 0 0 20 10 10 13 10 15 70 15 0

North East Vic (Bonnie Doon)

Pasture growth curves - North East Victoria (Bonnie Doon)
Figure 6. Pasture growth curves – North East Victoria (Bonnie Doon)

 Table 61. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne with fertiliser in North East Victoria (Bonnie Doon)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Poor year, Fertilised 10 13 11 11 11 10 5 9 23 22 14 7
Lucerne – Standard year, Fertilised 14 12 8 15 14 10 10 10 29 44 26 16
Lucerne – Good year, Fertilised 20 15 17 17 18 20 20 20 31 52 49 29
Table 62. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass with fertiliser in North East Victoria (Bonnie Doon) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Perennial rye – Poor year, Fertilised 0 0 3 20 36 28 20 28 40 23 7 3
Perennial rye – Standard year, Fertilised 3 3 7 27 32 28 19 29 43 49 40 8
Perennial rye – Good year, fertilised 2 0 8 21 38 26 20 33 45 49 68 36
Table 63. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for winter active phalaris and clover with fertiliser in North East Victoria (Bonnie Doon) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Phalaris winter active, clover, Fert – Poor year 0 0 5 5 10 10 10 15 30 50 20 0
Phalaris winter active, clover, Fert – Stnd year 5 5 10 30 30 20 20 30 40 80 30 10
Phalaris winter active, clover, Fert – Good year 10 10 20 30 30 25 25 30 50 85 50 20
Table 64. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annual grass and weeds with no fertiliser in North East Victoria (Bonnie Doon) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, No fertiliser  – Stnd year 0 0 5 25 20 15 15 20 30 50 5 0
Annual grass & weeds, No Fertiliser – Poor year 0 0 0 0 10 15 15 20 30 20 0 0
Annual grass & weeds No fertiliser – Good year 0 0 10 30 20 20 20 30 40 60 10 0
Table 65. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for Danthonia, annuals and weeds with no fertiliser in North East Victoria (Bonnie Doon) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Danthonia, annuals, capeweed, No Fert – Poor year 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 8 15 10 5 0
Danthonia, annuals & weeds No Fert- Stnd year 0 0 5 10 10 7 7 10 15 20 10 5
Danthonia, annuals, capeweed No Fert – Good year 5 5 10 15 10 7 10 10 15 25 15 5
Table 66. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for Microlaena, Danthonia and annual grass in North East Victoria (Bonnie Doon) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Microleana, danthonia, annual grass – Poor year 0 0 0 5 5 3 3 6 10 20 10 5
Microleana, danthonia, annuals – Standard year 5 5 5 15 8 4 4 6 10 30 20 10
Microleana, danthonia, annual grass – Good year 10 10 10 15 10 4 4 6 10 30 20 10

West Gippsland (Ellinbank)

Table 67. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass and clover with fertiliser in West Gippsland, Victoria (Ellinbank)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Perennial ryegrass, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 18 10 19 20 18 16 10 20 55 80 70 59
Perennial ryegrass, clover, Fertiliser – Good year 23 13 25 26 23 21 13 26 72 104 91 77
Perennial ryegrass, clover, Fertiliser – Poor year 13 7 13 14 13 11 7 14 39 56 49 41
Table 68. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in West Gippsland, Victoria (Ellinbank) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Poor year 42 24 25 27 18 11 8 12 27 37 47 54
Lucerne – Standard year 55 36 35 32 24 15 11 19 31 42 56 65
Lucerne – Good year 62 53 45 36 25 16 14 22 34 43 54 72

Central Gippsland (Maffra)

Table 69. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass and clover with fertiliser in Central Gippsland, Victoria (Maffra)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Dryland perennial ryegrass, clover, Fert – Poor year 4 4 0 14 12 7 1 11 21 27 21 1
Dryland perennial ryegrass, clover, Fert – Stnd year 5 5 0 20 17 10 2 15 30 38 30 2
Dryland perennial ryegrass, clover, Fert – Good Year 7 7 0 26 22 13 3 20 39 49 39 3
Table 70. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in Central Gippsland, Victoria (Maffra) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Poor year 16 15 25 18 12 10 7 13 24 25 15 14
Lucerne – Standard year 22 14 17 21 19 14 10 17 31 41 41 29
Lucerne – Good year 34 26 28 24 23 15 16 23 34 39 56 51

East Gippsland (Bairnsdale)

Table 71. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annual grass and clover with fertiliser in East Gippsland, Victoria (Bairnsdale)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 9 15 11 11 15 15 15 25 30 30 22
Annual grass, clover, Fertiliser – Poor year 0 4 7 7 9 7 7 7 12 13 15 9
Annual grass, clover, Fertiliser – Good year 4 28 28 22 22 30 30 30 40 47 47 37
Kikuyu, annuals, clover – Standard year 50 60 50 25 10 10 10 10 20 25 35 45

Tasmania

North West (Elliott)

Table 72. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in North West Tasmania (Elliot)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Per ryegrass, cocksfoot, clover, Fert – Standard year 25 9 5 14 9 8 8 7 19 54 51 35
Forage crop 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Stubble 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 73. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in North West Tasmania (Elliot) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Poor year 28 25 27 25 14 8 5 12 23 39 49 58
Lucerne – Standard year 57 51 41 28 18 9 8 13 29 44 54 74
Lucerne – Good year 88 58 49 35 22 13 12 17 32 46 55 66
Table 74. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass and clover with fertiliser in North West Tasmania (Elliot) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Poor year, Fertiliser 18 2 3 40 35 28 24 34 44 56 88 81
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Standard year, Fertiliser 72 40 20 35 38 30 25 31 44 58 85 93
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Good year, Fertiliser 94 96 51 52 58 34 26 34 43 55 87 94

North Central (Cressy)

Table 75. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in North Central Tasmania (Cressy)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Standard year 21 12 17 20 12 4 2 6 20 35 37 32
Lucerne – Poor year 18 19 12 14 10 4 1 5 17 30 31 17
Lucerne – Good year 32 18 26 22 12 3 1 6 22 40 43 32
Table 76. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass and clover with fertiliser in North Central Tasmania (Cressy) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Perennial ryegrass, cocksfoot, clover, Ferti – Standard year 14 5 2 8 6 7 6 6 31 65 46 22
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Standard year, Fertiliser 10 14 17 34 27 18 9 20 41 49 38 34
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Poor year, Fertiliser 10 2 27 33 22 16 5 21 37 27 26 26
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Good year, Fertiliser 31 15 30 43 28 10 6 20 40 53 57 57
Table 77. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals and clover in North Central Tasmania (Cressy) 
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass, clover – Standard year 4 10 20 25 18 7 7 19 40 63 42 13
Annual grass, clover – Poor year 0 0 8 16 17 5 5 10 40 47 23 0
Annual grass, clover – Good year 9 8 25 27 22 11 10 21 51 72 70 49

Central Midlands (Ross)

Table 78. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for native pasture and clover with fertiliser in Central Midlands, Tasmania (Ross)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Native pasture, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 4 25 55 19 7

Southern Midlands (Jericho)

Table 79. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in Southern Midlands, Tasmania (Jericho)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Standard year 20 14 15 13 6 1 0 2 12 26 29 21
Lucerne – Poor year 18 9 13 14 7 2 0 3 9 19 17 13
Lucerne – Good year 31 27 25 20 7 0 0 2 13 29 32 28
Table 80. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for perennial ryegrass and clover with fertiliser versus cocksfoot, phalaris and clover in Southern Midlands, Tasmania (Jericho)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Standard year, Fertiliser 28 14 14 27 22 9 3 11 34 42 41 40
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Poor year, Fertiliser 16 1 12 25 18 8 4 8 29 36 20 26
Perennial ryegrass, clover – Good year, Fertiliser 47 19 34 46 27 6 2 12 39 46 38 52
Cocksfoot, phalaris, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 7 1 2 8 7 6 4 6 16 36 47 20
Table 81. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals and clover in Southern Midlands, Tasmania (Jericho)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass, clover, Fertiliser – Standard Year 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 5 15 45 35 15
Annual grass, clover – Standard year, No fertiliser 5 11 19 22 13 4 2 9 34 54 43 17
Annual grass, clover – Poor year, No fertiliser 5 5 14 16 11 4 1 5 23 34 19 18
Annual grass, clover – Good year, No fertiliser 9 14 23 27 15 4 3 11 38 57 75 49

South Australia

Mount Gambier

Table 82. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in South Australia (Mount Gambier)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Aust Phalaris, clover, annuals, Fertilised – Standard year 3 3 8 17 28 27 27 39 56 67 46 11
Annual grass, clover, Not fertilised – Standard year 2 2 6 11 18 17 18 35 50 60 40 5
Lucerne, Fertiliser – Standard year 21 11 11 25 22 16 13 20 33 46 53 44
Perennial ryegrass,clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 2 0 1 14 34 35 30 36 45 70 81 30
Perennial ryegrass, clover,  Fertiliser – Poor year 0 0 0 1 10 25 20 20 30 48 60 10
Perennial ryegrass, clover,  Fertiliser – Good year 10 6 9 27 32 40 35 40 50 70 90 40
Annual grass, clover – Standard year 0 0 0 5 10 27 25 49 50 40 15 0

Lucindale

Table 83. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in South Australia (Lucindale)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Aust Phalaris, clover, annuals, Fertilised – Standard year 0 0 3 9 21 24 27 34 41 50 21 4
Lucerne, annuals, fertiliser – Standard year 5 5 4 8 13 14 19 29 44 48 30 12
Annual grass, clover – Poor year 0 0 0 0 5 10 20 25 25 50 6 0
Annual grass, clover – Good year 0 0 7 14 28 30 36 55 73 90 35 1

Keith

Table 84. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in South Australia (Keith)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Aust phalaris, clover, annuals, Fertilised – Standard year 0 0 1 10 21 25 26 32 35 27 17 4
Lucerne, annuals, Fertilised – Standard year 6 6 3 6 11 13 16 24 38 36 21 6
Lucerne, No annuals, Fertilised – Standard year 6 5 4 7 11 11 12 17 27 29 17 8
Annual grass, clover, fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 35 69 48 12 2
Annual grass, clover, fertiliser – Poor year 0 0 0 0 5 10 15 30 41 40 5 0
Annual grass, clover, fertiliser – Good year 4 3 8 18 26 31 35 56 74 81 20 2

Adelaide Hills (Mt Barker)

Table 85. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in Adelaide Hills, South Australia (Mount Barker)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Phalaris, clover, annuals, Fertilized – Standard year 4 0 5 19 28 25 23 31 42 54 33 10
Lucerne, annuals – Standard year 19 15 14 24 22 14 10 17 29 42 38 21
Perennial ryegrass, clover, Fertilised – Standard year 0 0 6 15 36 30 24 32 41 54 35 8
Annual grass, clover – Standard year 0 0 0 10 15 25 25 35 50 71 25 0
Annual grass, clover – Good year 0 0 5 15 20 25 30 47 80 86 50 0
Annual grass, clover – Poor year 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 40 50 5 0

Fleurieu Peninsula (Inman Valley)

Table 86. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia (Inman Valley)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Perennial grass, clover, No fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 0 15 15 15 25 35 40 25 0
Phalaris, clover, annuals, Fertilised – Standard year 0 2 6 17 29 28 25 33 45 50 25 8
Lucerne – Standard year 13 8 8 18 19 12 8 13 27 37 24 20
Annual grass, clover – Standard year 0 0 0 10 20 22 21 37 57 61 22 0
Annual grass, clover – Poor year 0 0 0 0 10 15 17 20 40 40 7 0
Annual grass, clover – Good year 0 0 5 15 29 30 26 43 64 81 53 12

Fleurieu Peninsula (Mt Barker)

Table 87. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for phalaris, clover, annuals in Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia (Mount Barker)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Phalaris, clover, annuals, Fertilised – Standard year 4 0 5 19 28 25 23 31 42 54 33 10

Kangaroo Island (Parndana)

Table 88. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species on Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Parndarna)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass, clover, Fertilised – Standard year 0 0 0 5 13 22 28 41 52 42 16 0
Annual grass, low clover, Not fertilised – Standard year 0 0 0 1 4 11 14 19 31 63 35 0
Kikuyu, clover, annuals, Fertiliser – Standard year 10 5 10 15 15 18 21 30 45 45 20 15
Lucerne – Standard year 7 4 5 8 17 15 13 17 33 40 15 9
Perennial ryegrass, clover, Fertilised – Standard year 0 0 5 17 25 25 25 35 38 36 21 7

Mallee – (Lameroo)

Table 89. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for medic, annuals in Mallee, South Australia (Lameroo)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Medic, annuals – Standard year 0 0 0 5 12 18 24 32 29 20 5 0

Mid North (Roseworthy)

Table 90. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for medic, annuals in Mid North South Australia (Roseworthy)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Medic, annuals – Standard Year 0 0 4 8 15 21 29 40 46 24 5 0

Mid North (Crystal Brook)

Table 91. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for medic, annuals in Mid North South Australia (Crystal Brook)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Medic, annuals – Standard year 0 0 3 7 13 20 28 34 32 14 3 0

Mid North (Booborowie)

Table 92. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in Mid North South Australia (Booborowie)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Medic, annuals – Standard year 0 0 3 7 15 19 22 32 40 28 10 0
Lucerne, annuals, Fertilised – Standard year 4 5 3 4 8 9 11 16 25 25 17 8

Eyre Penninsula (Minnipa)

Table 93. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for medic, annuals in Eyre Penninsula South Australia (Minnipa)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Medic, annuals – Standard year 0 0 0 3 8 17 27 34 28 9 0 0

Eyre Peninsula (Koppio)

Table 94. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for cocksfoot, clover annuals in Eyre Penninsula South Australia (Koppio)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cocksfoot, clover, annuals – Standard Year 2 2 3 8 19 26 31 41 48 26 5 0

Yorke Peninsula (Minlaton)

Table 95. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for medic, annuals in York Penninsula South Australia (Minlaton)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Medic, annuals – Standard year 0 0 2 5 14 24 35 45 40 19 3 0

Western Australia

West Midlands (Irwin)

Table 96. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals and weeds in West Midlands, Western Australia (Irwin)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover – Standard year 0 0 0 2 17 27 28 36 56 51 10 0

West Midlands (Moora, Three Springs)

Table 97. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals and weeds and lucerne in West Midlands, Western Australia (Moora, Three Springs)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover – Standard year 0 0 0 1 6 12 17 28 40 25 8 0
Lucerne – Standard year 1 2 8 8 14 21 22 26 30 10 6 1
Lucerne – Poor year 1 0 4 7 14 19 20 25 12 5 1 1
Lucerne – Good year 5 9 5 6 15 20 23 27 46 35 3 3

Central (Northam)

Table 98. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals and weeds and lucerne in Central, Western Australia (Northam)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover, No fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 2 12 6 10 40 60 15 0 0
Lucerne – Standard year 4 2 4 9 13 14 15 19 35 26 5 2
Lucerne – Poor year 3 4 1 4 8 12 13 17 27 14 5 1
Lucerne – Good year 4 9 6 9 14 16 17 21 38 40 11 4

Southern High Rainfall (Busselton)

Table 99. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals, weeds and clover with fertiliser in the Southern high rainfall zone, Western Australia (Bussleton)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 6 23 26 28 37 53 58 42 0

Southern Cold Zone (Boyup Brook)

Table 100. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals, weeds and clover with fertiliser in the Southern cold zone, Western Australia (Boyup Brook)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 4 13 17 20 31 37 34 26 0

Southern Cold Zone (Katanning, Lake Grace, Narrogin)

Table 101. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for annuals, weeds and clover with fertiliser in the Southern cold zone, Western Australia (Katanning, Lake Grace, Narrogin)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 1 8 13 14 26 48 40 5 0

Southern Cold Zone (Manjimup)

Table 102. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in the Southern cold zone, Western Australia (Manjimup)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 4 13 17 17 31 40 58 26 0
Lucerne – Standard year 4 4 3 12 15 13 16 26 43 60 32 8
Kikuyu – Standard year 8 8 6 18 19 16 16 26 35 45 26 16

South Coast High Rainfall (Mt. Barker)

Pasture growth curves - South Coast WA (Mt Barker)
Figure 7. Pasture growth curves – South Coast WA (Mt Barker)

Table 103. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in the South Coast high rainfall zone, Western Australia (Mount Barker)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 12 21 23 20 25 45 58 23 0
Lucerne – Standard year 8 8 5 12 22 22 18 27 40 60 30 10
Lucerne – Poor year 4 0 0 6 15 16 17 17 31 30 13 5
Lucerne – Good year 15 16 12 16 25 26 28 33 50 70 40 25
Kikuyu – Standard year 13 13 10 12 17 18 20 26 45 58 33 14
Kikuyu – Poor year 8 3 4 8 12 8 12 13 23 45 17 11
Kikuyu – Good year 24 21 14 24 25 24 32 30 55 75 40 35

South Coast Sandplain (Wellstead)

 Pasture growth curves - South Coast Sandplain WA (Wellstead)
Figure 8. Pasture growth curves – South Coast Sandplain WA (Wellstead)

Table 104. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in the South Coast Sandplain, Western Australia (Wellstead)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 7 10 13 17 29 42 33 7 0
Lucerne – Standard year 8 8 4 7 11 12 14 26 29 35 11 11
Lucerne – Poor year 4 0 0 3 10 10 11 19 23 19 5 4
Lucerne – Good year 19 17 14 15 14 15 22 30 38 40 32 20
Kikuyu – Standard year 12 12 9 12 12 13 16 27 42 33 22 15
Kikuyu – Poor year 9 3 4 8 10 7 10 10 23 24 14 10
Kikuyu – Good year 25 23 15 24 20 20 32 34 55 50 30 27

South Coast Sandplain (Esperance, Ravensthorpe)

Table 105. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for various species in the South Coast Sandplain, Western Australia (Esperence, Ravensthorpe)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Annual grass & weeds, clover, Fertiliser – Standard year 0 0 0 7 10 13 17 29 52 36 16 0
Lucerne – Standard year 12 12 6 11 11 12 14 25 32 40 20 15
Lucerne – Poor year 6 0 0 5 10 11 12 19 26 24 8 8
Lucerne – Good year 20 18 15 16 14 15 22 28 40 45 33 25
Kikuyu – Standard year 14 14 11 13 13 10 11 27 50 36 25 18
Kikuyu – Poor year 9 3 4 8 10 7 7 12 25 24 16 12
Kikuyu – Good year 25 22 15 25 20 15 22 30 60 50 30 25

Queensland

St George

Table 106. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for sown grass in Queensland (St George)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Sown grass – Standard year 15 20 17 9 3 1 1 3 9 17 18 14
Sown grass – Poor year 6 9 4 4 1 1 0 2 4 4 3 6
Sown grass – Good year 30 40 31 16 5 2 2 4 17 28 30 22
Table 107. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for native grass in Queensland (St George)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Native grass – Standard year 14 18 15 8 3 1 1 2 8 14 15 13
Native grass – Poor year 6 8 4 3 1 1 0 1 4 3 3 6
Native grass – Good year 28 37 28 14 5 1 2 4 14 23 25 26
Table 108. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for forage sorghum in Queensland (St George)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Forage sorghum – Standard year 50 38 33 20 6 1 0 0 0 0 15 44
Forage sorghum – Poor year 13 15 14 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 14
Forage sorghum – Good year 91 50 49 25 5 0 0 0 0 0 21 82
Table 109. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for Lablab in Queensland (St George)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lablab – Standard year 31 29 28 19 8 0 0 0 0 0 14 29
Lablab – Poor year 8 11 9 10 3 0 0 0 0 0 4 8
Lablab – Good year 52 53 56 39 17 1 0 0 0 0 26 50
Table 110. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in Queensland (St George)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Standard year 11 13 14 14 12 13 17 18 14 11 12 11
Lucerne – Poor year 3 7 4 3 2 4 7 5 3 3 3 4
Lucerne – Good year 20 26 24 20 19 20 29 34 35 25 24 20
Table 111. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for oats in Queensland (St George)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Oats – Standard year 0 0 0 2 25 24 32 45 28 18 12 0
Oats – Poor year 0 0 0 1 8 9 16 30 6 0 0 0
Oats – Good year 0 0 0 2 24 30 48 48 45 45 30 0

Roma

Table 112. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for sown grass in Queensland (Roma)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Sown grass – Standard year 20 24 22 12 4 1 1 3 11 21 24 21
Sown grass – Poor year 7 10 10 5 2 1 1 2 6 6 9 15
Sown grass – Good year 34 40 39 21 5 1 2 4 16 30 37 29
Table 113. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for native grass in Queensland (Roma)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Native grass – Standard year 19 22 20 11 3 1 1 3 9 18 20 20
Native grass – Poor year 6 9 9 4 1 1 1 2 5 5 8 14
Native grass – Good year 31 37 36 19 4 1 2 4 14 25 31 31
Table 114. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for forage sorghum in Queensland (Roma)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Forage sorghum – Standard year 59 45 37 17 1 0 0 0 0 0 19 58
Forage sorghum – Poor year 30 18 14 11 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 22
Forage sorghum – Good year 90 54 52 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 101
Table 115. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for Lablab in Queensland (Roma)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lablab – Standard year 41 37 32 20 3 0 0 0 0 0 18 35
Lablab – Poor year 14 15 10 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 15
Lablab – Good year 64 63 53 50 11 0 0 0 0 0 33 55
Table 116. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in Queensland (Roma)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Standard year 16 19 20 18 16 18 18 18 16 14 14 15
Lucerne – Poor year 6 9 6 4 3 12 9 8 4 4 6 7
Lucerne – Good year 24 29 30 25 24 23 30 34 37 32 30 25
Table 117. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for oats in Queensland (Roma)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Oats – Standard year 0 0 0 3 31 23 38 45 34 22 16 0
Oats – Poor year 0 0 0 2 18 17 24 25 14 3 1 0
Oats – Good year 0 0 0 2 23 39 50 47 43 41 32 0

Goondiwindi

Table 118. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for sown grass in Queensland (Goondiwindi)

Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Sown grass – Standard year 20 21 18 11 3 1 1 2 9 21 26 23
Sown grass – Poor year 11 11 8 3 1 1 0 1 6 11 12 12
Sown grass – Good year 42 44 32 16 5 1 1 2 12 30 36 39
Table 119. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for native grass in Queensland (Goondiwindi)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Native grass – Standard year 18 19 17 10 3 1 1 2 7 17 21 21
Native grass – Poor year 10 10 7 3 1 1 0 1 5 9 10 11
Native grass – Good year 38 40 29 14 5 1 1 2 10 25 30 35
Table 120. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for forage sorghum in Queensland (Goondiwindi)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Forage sorghum – Standard year 64 40 36 22 4 0 0 0 0 0 17 60
Forage sorghum – Poor year 41 29 14 9 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 24
Forage sorghum – Good year 79 49 43 22 3 0 0 0 0 0 32 105
Table 121. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for Lablab in Queensland (Goondiwindi)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lablab – Standard year 41 35 30 23 8 0 0 0 0 0 17 40
Lablab – Poor year 24 17 9 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 8 17
Lablab – Good year 65 73 48 50 15 0 0 0 0 0 23 62
Table 122. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for lucerne in Queensland (Goondiwindi)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Lucerne – Standard year 17 17 17 16 14 16 16 22 20 18 17 17
Lucerne – Poor year 11 11 10 6 4 10 4 6 4 5 7 9
Lucerne – Good year 23 26 24 25 22 23 23 41 44 39 36 26
Table 123. Growth rates (kg/ha/day) for oats in Queensland (Goondiwindi)
Growth rates (kg/ha/day)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Oats – Standard year 0 0 0 3 28 31 37 44 34 21 15 0
Oats – Poor year 0 0 0 3 20 11 31 30 15 2 0 0
Oats – Good year 0 0 0 3 33 45 39 48 39 43 28 0

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